Assessing Affective Objectives

 

This document illustrates how a well-written objective assists one in developing valid assessment instruments. Affective objectives are illustrated here.

Goals & Objectives

Overall Goal

The learner's perspective on minority rights will improve.

Objectives Derived From Goal

  1. Given the opportunity to work in a team with several people of different races, the student will demonstrate a positive increase in attitude towards non-discrimination of race, as measured by a checklist utilized/completed by non-team members.
  2. Given the opportunity to rank non-discrimination of race in relationship to other issues, the student will demonstrate a positive increase in attitude towards non-discrimination of race, as demonstrated by ranking non-discrimination of race as more important than other issues.
  3. Given the opportunity to choose/not choose to do so, the student will demonstrate a positive increase in attitude towards non-discrimination of race, as demonstrated by choosing to participate (at varying levels of responsibility) in the organization of a racial equality rally.

Purpose of Assessment

To determine if an individual's attitude towards racial equality has improved. If the student's score increases at all on the posttest, they are considered successful.

Possible Biases

  • People from different cultures may use different body language and facial expressions to convey the same meaning. The assessor must take this into account when assessing an individual.
  • There may be other intrinsically-based (and thus difficult to quantify) motivations for participating in a rally.

Assessment Procedure of Objective 1

Objective 1 Pretest

The student being assessed would be part of a racially diverse group. The provided rubric would be employed by the instructor or by someone not actually participating in the group. To have a group member or members employ the rubric as a pretest device would invalidate it, for the individual's actions and mannerisms would change upon introduction of the rubric. This could interfere with or augment the instruction that would follow.

Objective 1 Posttest

The student being assessed would be part of a racially diverse group. The provided rubric would be employed by the instructor or by someone not actually participating in the group. Ideally, this assessor should be the same person who administered the pretest. To have a group member or members employ the rubric as a posttest device would invalidate it, for the individual's actions and mannerisms would change upon introduction of the rubric. Ideally, each student should be assessed at least two times with different groups.

Comparisons between pretest and posttest scores would be used to determine if a positive increase in attitude towards non-discrimination of race has occurred.

Sample Rubric/Scoresheet for Assessment

Directions: For each individual, use the following scale to assign a value to the individual's performance on each item listed in the left column. Place an X in the most appropriate square to the right of each item.

Example: If you decide a student only rarely attended individuals with the same amount of interest, place an X in the box under the 2. Twenty-eight possible points. Observe each student for 10 minutes.

 

Rubric for Observing Levels of Diversity Awareness
Ratings 4:
Most (90 - 100%) of the time
3:
Usually (60 - 89%) of the time
2:
Somewhat (30 - 59%) of the time
1:
Rarely (0 - 29%) of the time
Student listens to each individual with the same amount of interest.        
Student uses the same respectful tone of voice when addressing each team member.        
Student does not make culturally sensitive or degrading remarks. (Example: "You Brugians are always thinking about yourselves.")        
When a disagreement occurs, the student addresses the disagreement and not the other team member(s). (Example: "I don’t believe that is true because..." NOT "Maybe where you come from that’s true, but...")        
Student generally maintains the same body language and facial expressions for all other team members. (Example: The student frowns at Xavier all the time, but smiles at Jessica all the time.)        
Student maintains same level of eye contact with all other group members.        

Conditions of Assessment

  • The student must be unaware s/he is being assessed.
  • Pretest/posttest environmental conditions must be as similar as possible.
  • Group size should remain constant for pre and posttests.
  • Group topics should remain fairly consistent between pre and posttests.

Validity Defense

  • Overt, measurable actions are used to assess the student.
  • All assessment tasks work together in that they are assessing verbal and non-verbal responses (Internal structure evidence.)
  • This type of assessment is easy to use and provides overt, non-ambiguous results. (Practicality evidence.)
  • No negative or unexpected side effects are foreseen when this assessment is used. (Consequential evidence.)

Reliability Assessment

  • The same assessor is used on the pretest and posttest. (Assessor reliability).
  • Two trials per individual are allowed to improve reliability over time. (Test-retest reliability).
  • Environmental factors that may affect how a student reacts are neutralized.
  • Group dynamics, such as size and topic, are made as consistent as possible to neutralize possible external variations that might affect testing.

Assessment Procedure of Objective 2

Pretest

Via a paper handout, students would be asked to volunteer to work on developing a rally for racial equality. Students would return the handout having checked how they would like to (or not to) participate in the rally. The provided scoresheet would be employed by the instructor to assign a pretest score to each student.

Posttest (After instruction)

Via a paper handout, students would be asked to volunteer to work on developing a rally for racial equality. Students would return the handout having checked how they would like to (or not to) participate in the rally. The provided scoresheet would be employed by the instructor to assign a posttest score to each student.

Comparisons between pretest and posttest scores would be used to determine if a positive increase in attitude towards non-discrimination of race has occurred.

Scoresheet

Assign each individual a numeric score based on his/her indicated level of involvement on the completed handout.

 

5 - Master organizer of entire rally.
4 - Organize a specific part of the rally.
3 - Assistant for two or more organizers of a specific part of the rally.
2 - Assistant for one organizer of a specific part of the rally.
1 - Minimal involvement (i.e., man refreshment stand night of the rally).
0 - No involvement.

 

Conditions of Assessment

  • No other external incentive must be provided/available to the student that might influence his/her choice of level of involvement.
  • Pretest/posttest environmental conditions must be as similar as possible.

Validity Defense

  • Overt, measurable actions are used to assess the student.
  • This type of assessment is easy to use and provides overt, non-ambiguous results. (Practicality evidence.)
  • No negative or unexpected side effects are foreseen when this assessment is used. (Consequential evidence.)

Reliability Assessment

  • The same assessor is used on the pretest and posttest. (Assessor reliability).
  • Environmental factors and covert incentives that may affect how a student reacts are neutralized.

Assessment of Objective 3

Pretest

Via a pencil and paper quiz, students would be asked to rank the relative importance of non-discrimination of race as compared to other social issues.

Posttest (After instruction)

Via a pencil and paper quiz, students would be asked to rank the relative importance of non-discrimination of race as compared to other social issues.

Comparisons between pretest and posttest rankings would be used to determine if a positive increase in attitude towards non-discrimination of race has occurred.

Sample Quiz

  1. You are the mayor of a large city. You have a budget surplus. Please rank the following programs in order of importance. The higher-ranking items will receive more money for programs that support them, and thus will be more successful.
    __ Additional Policemen
    __ Racial Equality Programs
    __ Spouse Abuse Shelters
    __ Pollution Control Programs
  2. You are the new superintendent in an inter-racial school. Several gangs exist, and there is graffiti everywhere. Teachers are afraid of some of the students. No type of security measures are in place at this time. You have a plan to change things, but you need to decide what to do first, second, etc. Please rank the following programs in order of importance.
    __ Racial Tolerance Programs
    __ Gang Control
    __ Graffiti Cleanup
    __ Security Program
  3. You are the social director in a small, rural town in mid-western United States. The population of your town was 100% white until this week. A Mexican family of 10 just moved into town. Rumor has it that the father of the family has no job at this time. The mother creates and sells crafts out of her house. The 8 children's ages span between 1 and 15. As social director, what do you think you should do? Please rank the following ideas in order of importance.
    __ Advertise Available Jobs Throughout Town
    __ Host an Open House for the Mother's Crafts
    __ Mexican Culture Awareness Social
    __ Do Nothing Unless Asked By Someone
  4. You are in an airplane with your classmates, a group of Indians, and a group of Eskimos. The plane crashes in the water, but fortunately many of you survive. The plane is sinking. You are one of the least injured people. Each group is huddled near an exit, and will be equally easy (or difficult) to rescue. Some of the less injured will probably be able to rescue themselves, but you are not sure. You have to decide who to rescue first, second, and so on. You doubt you have time to rescue everyone before the plane sinks completely. Please rank the following groups in the order you would save them.
    __ Your classmates
    __ The most injured
    __ The Indians
    __ The Eskimos
    __ The least injured
    __ Obviously dead bodies
  5. You are in charge of a private golf club. It was open only to white people with low handicaps (10 or less). Recently, the clubhouse burnt down, and many of the members have left for other clubs. You have to rebuild the physical site, and also build up the number of members. Please rank the following decisions in order of importance.
    __ Raise membership fees to help pay for the new clubhouse.
    __ Open the club membership to anyone who can pay the membership fee.
    __ Place a handicap limit on perspective members. Those people with a handicap greater than 20 cannot join the club.
    __ Build a cheap, temporary clubhouse for use until the new clubhouse can be built.

Scoring

  1. Item to examine for positive change is "Racial Equality Programs."
  2. Item to examine for positive change is "Racial Tolerance Programs."
  3. Item to examine for positive change is "Mexican Culture Awareness Social."
  4. Items to examine for positive change are "Most Injured" and "Least Injured."
  5. Item to examine for positive change is "Open the club membership to anyone who can pay the membership fee."

Conditions of Assessment

  • No other external incentive must be provided/available to the student that might influence his/her rankings.
  • Pretest/posttest environmental conditions must be as similar as possible.

Validity Defense

  • Overt, measurable actions are used to assess the student.
  • This type of assessment is easy to use and provides overt, non-ambiguous results. (Practicality evidence.)
  • No negative or unexpected side effects are foreseen when this assessment is used. (Consequential evidence.)

Reliability Assessment

  • The same assessor is used on the pretest and posttest. (Assessor reliability).
  • Environmental factors and covert incentives that may affect how a student reacts are neutralized.