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Office of the Vice Provost for Educational Equity, 2003 – "American institutions of higher education . . . face the challenge of preparing students to live and work in an increasingly diverse society in which cultural knowledge and understanding are more important than ever before. To meet this challenge, the universities of the CIC must educate students from all segments of society and must provide those students with a meaningful exposure to cultures other than their own."
Lieb, 1991 – "The best motivators for adult learners are interest and selfish benefit. If they can be shown that the course benefits them pragmatically, they will perform better, and the benefits will be longer lasting.
|Stereotypes and biases||Actions to avoid||Suggested actions|
|"Women have lower aptitudes in math" (Menkart, 1993).||Seldom call on women to solve complex math problems. Discourage women students from undertaking sophisticated projects.||Encourage women to solve complex math problems and undertake sophisticated projects.|
|"Women have lower aptitudes in general."||Studies have shown that college men receive more classroom reinforcement or encouragement from male professors compared to college women ("Promoting Diversity," 2003).||Give women equal amount of reinforcement and encouragement as well whenever they made progress.|
|"Minority students have lower aptitudes and can't make good oral contributions."||Studies also show that minority college students get less encouragement and more critical judgment of their oral contributions in the classroom ("Promoting Diversity," 2003).||
|"International students who have accents can't express themselves well or don't know how to express themselves."||Undervalue comments made by international students who have a heavy accent.||Listen carefully to the comments made by international students and try to adjust to their accents.|
|"Persons of eastern and southern European origins and blacks have lower IQs." (Suzuki, 1984; Fairtest, 1991)||Seldom call on those students to answer difficult questions.||Provide equal opportunities for the students to answer questions in class.|
|"All students know historical references familiar to the faculty."||Talk about events that happened before the students were born or in a country with which they are not familiar without placing them into context.||Provide appropriate context and background information. Link new topics to existing knowledge or provide resources.|
|"Homosexual students are weird."||In the 2001 National School Climate Survey Lesbian, Gay,
Bisexual and Transgender Students and Their Experiences in Schools GLSEN, 23.6% students reported hearing homophobic remarks from faculty or school staff at least some of the time. ("An exclusive approach," 2001-2002)
|Treat every student equally no matter what their sex orientation is.|
Connecticut Women's Educational and Legal Fund ((2001-2002)). An exclusive approach to excellence.
Retrieved May 14, 2003 from http://www.cwealf.org/pdf/equityfall01.pdf [No Longer Available]
Davis, B. G. (1999). Diversity and complexity in the classroom: Considerations of race, ethnicity, and gender. Retrieved May 14, 2003 from http://www.hcc.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/diverse.htm
Indiana State University (2003). Promoting Diversity.
Retrieved May 14, 2003 from: http://www.indstate.edu/ctl/TAGA/promoting.htm [No Longer Available]
Knowles, M.S. (1984). The adult leaner: A neglected species. (3rd edition). Houston: Gulf.
Levine, A. and Associates.(1990). Shaping Higher Education's Future: Demographic Realisties and Opportunities, 1990-2000. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Lieb, S. (1991). Principles of adult learning. Retrieved May 14, 2003 from http://www.hcc.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/adults-2.htm
Menkart, D. (1993). Multicultural education: strategies for linguistically diverse schools and classrooms. Retrieved May 14, 2003 from http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/ncbepubs/pigs/pig16.htm
Merryfield, M. M. (1995). Background information: Looking for biases and stereotypes about Africa. http://teacherlink.ed.usu.edu/tlresources/units/byrnes-africa/davtur/content.htm
Oklahoma State University (no date). Working with Diverse Students. Retrieved May 14, 2003 from http://home.okstate.edu/homepages.nsf/toc/EDUC5910iep8 [No Longer Available]