Revision of Objectives and Activities from Mon, 12/17/2007 - 20:38

The Best Choice...according to the
experts

Dwyer, 1991 – "If your final objective is to have learners engage in
problem-solving,you inspect the instructional unit to make sure that
the content contains the appropriate facts, concepts, rules/principles,
etc. which are a prerequisite for that intended learners to engage in
successful problem-solving."

Rationale

Relate different levels of learning objectives to learning
activities because:

  • Appropriate strategies and activities will increase the probability
    that the level of learning you expect will occur.
  • Student activities based on learning objectives will make sure
    you are teaching what you want to and must teach and that students
    are learning what they should learn.

Basic Information

Questions to think about

  1. What do the students need to do in order to achieve the course
    goals and objectives? Is it only memorization of concepts? Probably
    not. Then what activities are necessary to achieve the level of
    learning you expect?
  2. What do students need to memorize in order to perform higher-level tasks? What is the most basic? Can other information be looked up as needed or does the student need to know the information "on demand"?
  3. What is the ideal way to learn course content if money, time,
    location were not of concern? What of those ways can be incorporated
    into this course?
  4. What kind of knowledge/skills do you want to the students to
    apply in later courses or in their internship or jobs? Problem-solving,
    analysis, or what?
  5. What learning activities will motivate students; that is, what
    will convey your passion about the content?
  6. What will the students
    do in class, out of class and in recitation/small group sessions?
  7. What must the students, teaching assistants, and you do to
    support students as they learn?
  8. What is the nature of the class and how might that impact the
    range of student activities?

What are learning activities?

Activities can include writing papers, doing projects, solving
problems, discussing issues, etc. Read more at Penn State World Campus Examples
of Student Activities
.

Tie Different levels of objectives with Activities

When we talk about student activities, you may say:
I have all kinds of student activities, such as small-group discussion,
case studies, projects, etc. But why should you choose using case
studies over small-group discussion? And visa versa. Put another way:
when should you use one type of student activity over the other?

After you create the learning objectives, you should
not set them aside. Instead, you should keep them in mind alway when
you select student activities.

As mentioned in the section on "Why Do We Need Learning
Objectives"
there are different levels of objectives. You will want
to select student activities based on the level of the objectives.
Following are some examples of student activities related to different
levels of learning.

Table to Match Objective Type with Activity

The different levels of learning below are focused on
the cognitive domain. If you are teaching physical skills or want
to focus on students' attitude, feeling and values, you will want
to use other student activities.

Level of Learning Student activities
Facts
Self-check
quizzes, trivia games, etc.
Concepts Have
students show examples/non-examples, student generated flowchart,
etc.
Rules/Principles Design
projects and prototypes, simulations, etc.
Problem-solving Case
study, small group discussion, critical thinking, teamwork,
etc.

 

References

Dwyer, F. M.(1991). A paradigm for generating curriculum
design oriented research questions in distance education. Second
American Symposium Research in Distance Education
, University
Park, PA: Pennsylvania
State University.

Heinrich, R., Molenda, M., Russell, J.D., Smaldino,
S.E. (1996). Instructional Media and Technologies for Learning.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Merrill.

Huitt, W. (2000). Bloom
et al.'s taxonomy of the cognitive domain.
Retrieved May
14, 2003, from href="http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/cogsys/bloom.html">
http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/cogsys/bloom.html

Kizlik, B. (2003). How to write effective behavioral
objectives.
Boca Raton, FL: Adprima.

Retrieved May 14, 2003, from

http://www.adprima.com/objectives.htm

Lohr, L (no date). Objectives, sequencing, strategies,
Retrieved May 14, 2003,
from University of Northern Colorado College of Education Web site:
href="http://www.coe.unco.edu/LindaLohr/home/et502_cbt/Unit3/Unit3_menu.htm">http://www.coe.unco.edu/LindaLohr/home/et502_cbt/Unit3/Unit3_menu.htm

SOGC Org (no date). Writing instructional objectives: The what, why how and when. Retrieved May 14, 2003, from

http://www.sogc.org/conferences/pdfs/instructionalObj.PDF [No Longer Available]

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