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Dwyer, 1991 – "If your final objective is to have learners engage in problem-solving,you inspect the instructional unit to make sure that the content contains the appropriate facts, concepts, rules/principles, etc. which are a prerequisite for that intended learners to engage in successful problem-solving."
Relate different levels of learning objectives to learning activities because:
Activities can include writing papers, doing projects, solving problems, discussing issues, etc. Read more at Penn State World Campus Examples of Student Activities.
When we talk about student activities, you may say: I have all kinds of student activities, such as small-group discussion, case studies, projects, etc. But why should you choose using case studies over small-group discussion? And visa versa. Put another way: when should you use one type of student activity over the other?
After you create the learning objectives, you should not set them aside. Instead, you should keep them in mind alway when you select student activities.
As mentioned in the section on "Why Do We Need Learning Objectives" there are different levels of objectives. You will want to select student activities based on the level of the objectives. Following are some examples of student activities related to different levels of learning.
The different levels of learning below are focused on the cognitive domain. If you are teaching physical skills or want to focus on students' attitude, feeling and values, you will want to use other student activities.
|Level of Learning||Student activities|
|Facts||Self-check quizzes, trivia games, etc.|
|Concepts||Have students show examples/non-examples, student generated flowchart, etc.|
|Rules/Principles||Design projects and prototypes, simulations, etc.|
|Problem-solving||Case study, small group discussion, critical thinking, teamwork, etc.|
Dwyer, F. M.(1991). A paradigm for generating curriculum design oriented research questions in distance education. Second American Symposium Research in Distance Education, University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University.
Heinrich, R., Molenda, M., Russell, J.D., Smaldino, S.E. (1996). Instructional Media and Technologies for Learning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Merrill.
Huitt, W. (2000). Bloom et al.'s taxonomy of the cognitive domain. Retrieved May 14, 2003, from http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/cogsys/bloom.html
Kizlik, B. (2003). How to write effective behavioral objectives. Boca Raton, FL: Adprima.
Retrieved May 14, 2003, from
Lohr, L (no date). Objectives, sequencing, strategies, Retrieved May 14, 2003, from University of Northern Colorado College of Education Web site: http://www.coe.unco.edu/LindaLohr/home/et502_cbt/Unit3/Unit3_menu.htm
SOGC Org (no date). Writing instructional objectives: The what, why how and when. Retrieved May 14, 2003, from
http://www.sogc.org/conferences/pdfs/instructionalObj.PDF [No Longer Available]