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When incorporating video into a Web site, you must always balance the need for video with bandwidth considerations. Video can be difficult to transmit over the Web effectively, so you should choose to use video only when you absolutely need it.
Denning – "Video is now recognized by most educators as a powerful communications medium which, in combination with other learning resources and instructional strategies, can perform a vital role in modern education...When videos are properly integrated into instruction, they do not function merely to provide diversion - they promote learning through active engagement of students' mental processes."
Research suggests that students learn best when they are actively engaged in the learning activity. The instructors should decide how to effectively integrate video into teaching/learning process in order to facilitate learning. Consider:
The TEACH Act allows instructors more leeway to videos on a course Web site, but not total freedom. Penn State recommends:
Streamed video can be shown at two levels of quality
high bandwidth – Best viewed on campus or over a broadband connection (e.g. cable, DSL, ethernet)
low bandwidth – Optimized for slow connections, especially dial up modems.
Note: About 85% of students of University Park students have broadband connections at home. The numbers for other campues may not be the same.
High bandwidth videos are of better quality, but some viewers on dial-up connections may only be able to see the low-bandwidth connection. If in doubt, create two versions and give students the choice.
If you use video files in a course, a text transcript may need to be provided. Captions are the best option, but a link to a text transcription can also be used.
Penn State Video Accessibility
Shooting your own video allows you to show whatever you want and create custom content, but it also requires a lot of pre-planning (what to shoot, where to shoot, what to say, adding special effects, background music copyright, etc.).
See tutorials at the Digital Commons for information on planning and creating video
Denning, David. (no date). Video in theory and practice: Issues for classroom use and teacher video evaluation. Retrieved May 14, 2003, from http://ebiomedia.com/downloads/VidPM.pdf
Nielsen, Jakob. (1995). Guidelines for multimedia on the web. Retrieved May 14, 2003, from
Nielsen, Jakob. (2005) Talking-Head Video Is Boring Online. Retrieved Jan 16, 2007 from
Prairie Public Broadcasting (no date) Video in the classroom: Useful techniques for teachers. Retrieved May 14, 2003, from http://www.prairiepublic.org/education/teachers/techniques.htm
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